Supported by grants from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (U01-DK61212, U01-DK61230, U01-DK61239, U01-DK61242, and U01-DK61254), the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) General Clinical Research Centers Program ( M01-RR00036 [to the Washington University School of Medicine], M01-RR00043-45 [to Children’s Hospital Los Angeles], M01-RR00069 [to the University of Colorado Denver], M01-RR00084 [to Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh], M01-RR01066 [to Massachusetts General Hospital], M01-RR00125 [to Yale University], and M01-RR14467 [to the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center]) and the NCRR Clinical and Translational Science Awards program (UL1-RR024134 [to Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia], UL1-RR024139 [to Yale University], UL1-RR024153 [to Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh], UL1-RR024989 [to Case Western Reserve University], UL1-RR024992 [to Washington University in St. Louis], UL1-RR025758 [to Massachusetts General Hospital], and UL1-RR025780 [to the University of Colorado Denver]).
Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available with the full text of this article on NEJM.org.
The members of the writing committee (Petter Bjornstad, MD, Kimberly L. Drews, Ph.D., Sonia Caprio, MD, Rose Gubitosi-Klug, MD, Ph.D., David M. Nathan, MD, Bereket Tesfaldet, MS, Jeanie Tryggestad, MD, Neil H. White, MD, and Philip Zeitler, MD, Ph.D.) accept responsibility for the overall content and integrity of this article.
The opinions expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the respective institutional review boards of the Tribal and Indian Health Services or their members.
This article was updated on July 29, 2021 on NEJM.org.
A data release statement provided by the authors, along with the full text of this article, is available at NEJM.org.
We thank Becton Dickinson, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, GlaxoSmithKline, LifeScan, Pfizer, and Sanofi Aventis for donations of medicines and supplies; and Native American partners affiliated with the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center’s clinical center, including members of the Shawnee Tribe of the Absentee, Cherokee Nation, Chickasaw Nation, Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, and Oklahoma City Area Indian Health Service, for participation and instructions.
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